• Close Reading Techniques
           1. Prereading analysis:
    • Title: what do you think the piece will be about?
    • What do you already know about the subject? Can  you connect this subject to others like it?
    • What does the time period in which it was written suggest?
    • Do you know anything about the author?
    • Can you discern anything more from the background info. you are given?

    2. Highlighting (Do so sparingly, noting the author’s intent and text)

    ·     Main ideas (author’s purpose, occasion, audience, subject)

    ·     Key words (crash words, emotionally laden words)

    ·     Conflicting statements

    ·     Important quotations

    ·     Supporting details (substantiating data)

    ·     Patterns/broken patterns (tone changes, sentence length, elements...) 
    ·     Devices: appeals to ethos, logos, pathos

    Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker [ethos]; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind [pathos]; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself [logos].

    2. Annotating (more about your reactions to the text)

    ·     questions you have

    ·     comments on the text

    ·     synopses of the ideas

    ·     abbreviations of rhetorical techniques (FL-figurative language)

    ·     plan for your responsive essay ( I, B1, B2, B3, C)

    ·     Emotional signals ( ?  ! WTH)

    ·     Abbreviations for syntactical changes ( note: short statement among long flowing sentences, punctuation changes, sentence types)

    ·     Symbols to indicate the author’s organization (C=cause / E= effect/ R=reason A=anecdote)

    ·     Create your own system